Jewish culture audio
Judaism, the religion of the Jews (or Yahudis) is believed to found its roots in the land of the Kingdom of Judah. Aging over 4,000 years, it is believed to be the oldest monotheistic religion of the world, tracing back to the times of the Babylonian Era (538 BCE) and ancient Roman and Greek empires.
The Jewish culture we know and see today was formed in ancient Israel and evolved through the different ages and reigns. The teaching of the Bible holds the centre stage of cultural briefs and ideology of Jewish Culture – relating the life experiences and social cultures to an all-powerful God and his teachings.
What is Jewish culture
The Jewish Culture is the way of life, beliefs, values, and ideology of the Jews. The culture that originated and grew in Israel and its neighboring regions. The relation of the Jews to the culture isn’t just related to religious beliefs; but also their linkage to the land of Israel, the teachings of Jewish text and their history. The culture that is made up of its literature, art, beliefs, and practices as well as their social customs. Thus, Jewish culture and traditions involve an element of religion alongside that of practice and life.
Furthermore, the Diaspora history of the Jews, especially those followed by the Roman Empire, has contributed greatly to shape the culture as it is today. Being scattered across various geographical regions and exposure to varied cultural and social dynamics, Jewish culture evolved into various versions of itself, unique to each community and geography.
The Jewish culture in regions like the Middle East, and other parts of Asia shares the characteristic Jewish attributes but differ slightly from Jewish communities of Israel, Europe and America.
Jewish culture has had quite an extensive life and lived eras. Furthermore, the culture has experienced some major historical events and cultural changes, leaving behind stories to tell and facts to quote
Some facts about Jewish culture
The Jewish culture reflects the ideas of Judaism and how the Jews mold their lives around such beliefs and practices. Having a lifetime of extravagant incidents and eventful history, the branches of Jewish culture has spread across, creating a biome of its own. Here are some important aspects and Jewish culture facts.
- The foundation for Jewish culture is rooted in a set of 5 books of Moses – Torah. The Torah introduces and talks about the core values and ideology of Judaism which, in turn, transforms into the beliefs and practices of Jews. According to the Hebrew relics, the Torah (written Torah) was passed on to humanity by God through his Prophets along with the oral teachings – Mishna (as oral Torah). The written teachings along with the oral teachings enlighten the path of life and peace.
- The Torah defines the way to life – leading the path to the divine. According to the books, there are 613 commandments of God, known as ‘mitzvahs’, laying the deeds and path for the Jews.
At the age of 12 and 13, Jewish children (girls and boys, respectively) commit themselves to the practices of mitzvahs and step into Jewish adulthood. This is accompanied by ceremonies, Bar Mitzva for boys, where the boys read a section from the Torah and Bat Mitzva for girls, where they are celebrating their adulthood.
- All the different sects – Jews, Israelites, and Hebrews are all the same people. The people of God, the people of Judaism. According to the preaches of Judaism, God revealed himself to Abraham and introduced the principles of the monotheism. Jacob, the grandson of Abraham was renamed as Israel, descending into a family of Israel. Later, the people of the tribe of Judah recognized themselves as Yehudim – hence the Jews are often referred to as Yehudi.
- According to Jewish tradition, the Jewish people formed into a people during the slavery period in Egypt. According to the texts in Exodus, the early Jewish people served as slaves to the Egyptians. Soon after, God (through Moses) freed the Jews of their distressful condition. As per Jewish values, this experience propagated the sentiment of charity and empathy to the less fortunate and laid the Torah’s community ethic of ‘tzedakah’.
- Jewish identity is a national identity but can also exist regardless of geographical location. Rather, being it is related to one perceiving oneself as a Jew and relating to Jewish beliefs. According to Jewish laws, any child born to a Jewish mother is considered a Jew, irrespective of their beliefs or following Jewish customs. But also, people from other social sects and religions can convert into Judaism. The Jewish community accepts the converts through a long conversion process and ceremony performed under the observation of a Rabbi. This includes instructions of the commandments of the Torah, an immersion into water and acceptance of the commandments before a rabbinical court.
- Jewish worship uses many sacred objects, some of which are in daily use, such as items that need to be worn. Some are used once a year on one of the holidays, like a Seder plate, and some are used once in a lifetime, such as Ketuba, the written marriage agreement between the husband and his wife. Traditional Jewish art has evolved around sacred objects such as scripture, wine goblet, menorah, Seder Haggadah, and other items. The art of the Jewish sacred objects is called Judaica.
- The cuisines from the Middle East have always been known to offer some of the healthiest and yet delicious food items. Israel is no exception. Residing in the Mediterranean crescent, the Israeli diet is considered to be among the healthiest diets from around the world.
Jewish Cuisine and food customs
The Jewish Torah defines the laws of kashrut – the Jewish dietary laws. These laws are structured around what is seen as ‘fit to eat’, and thus establishing kosher (‘Kasher’ in Hebrew, which translates to ‘fit’). For those who follow a kosher diet, are required to adhere to rules of the kashrut.
Although, not many Jews follow these rules strictly –how should it be produced or slaughtered (in case of animals) or how it is prepared; they follow the rules in a way to respect their culture while keeping up with the external changes.
Jewish food presents a variety as well as similarities to different cuisines. It is because of their constant migrations and their tradition of adapting other cultures and cuisines into Jewish form. Jewish cuisine, as we know it today, is shaped over decades, driven by kashrut, the diasporic history, Jewish culture festivals and the influence of an adaptation to different regions and traditions on the Jews.
Ever since the early days, bread has been an integral part of a Jewish diet. This was complemented with agricultural products like grains, vegetables, and milk. Fruits, nuts, and meat were consumed occasionally or on special occasions. Over the time, new products like rice and other grains like barley and millet, fish and a wider variety of fruits were added to the table. During the Greeks and Roman eras, furnished meat like chickens, pheasants, etc. also got their place.
However, all through these shifts, the Jews upheld their traditions and culture. And transformed each of these ingredients and their dishes to adhere to the laws of kashrut.
Over recent years, Jewish cuisine has undergone hybridization, while bringing in elements from different Middle Eastern cultures and dishes. At present, the Jewish Israeli cuisine showcases a fantastic blend of different flavors and overlapping techniques from different cultures, creating a fusion cuisine while being authentically Jewish.
These are some of the traditional Jewish culture dishes:
1. Gefilte Fish
The Oral Torah defines the food traditions for Shabbat and the gefilte fish (stuffed fish) fulfils all the rules necessary. This traditional dish is highly popular during the Jewish festival of Passover. The dish is made by stuffing minced fish into a deboned and intact fish. Finally being cooked in fish stock. The deboned fish is an important element of this dish as it is religiously prohibited to pick bones on the table during Shabbat.
This baked snack is highly popular among the community. The traditional version of knish includes dough stuffed with mashed potato, kasha, and cheese followed by baking or sometimes is fried. Some variants of knish are also stuffed with black beans, spinach or sweet potatoes. Also, these are available in different shapes and sizes.
3. Pastrami Sandwich
A unique Jewish American creation, Pastrami Sandwich is loved by the Jews across all geographies. For this dish, the pastrami is slow-cooked with broth and corned beef for low heat. Sandwich bread slices are prepared with mustard, coleslaw, and cheese while sandwiching the cooked pastrami mix between them.
This Israeli pancake is a lovely delicacy. Most of the favorites like chocolate, meat, rice, mashed potatoes, and cheese are rolled into a pancake blanket. Though the blintz is not associated with any religious event, these cheese-filled rolls are in high demand during Hanukkah.
Challah is a beautiful braided and special Jewish bread that is often served during Shabbat and other Jewish holidays. The name is derived from the mitzvah which refers to separating a portion of bread after braiding. This portion of dough is kept for the Kohen (priest).
The preparation of the bread starts with a dough of eggs, flour, water, sugar, yeast, and salt; and sometimes complemented with raisins and nuts. These are then rolled into ropes and braided. Finally to be baked.
The melodies of Jewish music
Music is a language that knows no bounds. It breaks through borders, the barriers of spoken language and appeals to the hearts. Jewish music is an epitome of music and its power.
The Jewish music has flourish and branches out of the lands of Israel for centuries. Spreading across the Middle East – to Iran, the Mediterranean, parts of Africa and Europe and even further to the Americas.
The community has nurtured music in its early days, creating some amazing musical pieces and admirable works. However, due to some uneventful incidents of their history, instrumental music was excluded. Only what stayed was vocal tradition, most of which includes melodic recitation of the Torah for religious services.
There are various citations in the Talmud, about the use of musical instruments like trumpets, harps, timbrels, etc, at important occasion’s festivities. However, after the hardships suffered under the Babylonians and the fall of Jerusalem under the Roman Rule, instrumental music would only remind the community of the suffering and sorrow.
During these times, the traditional synagogues were purely vocal and different forms of music were born for religious service and ceremonies – piyyutim (poems), Pizmonim (traditional melodies to praise the god), zemirot, baqashot, and nigun. The instruments played in harmony with the Jewish vocals later, when the Jews reunited in Zion and started to rebuild themselves as a community.
The influence of other musical cultures and forms
For years, Jewish music resisted the influence of the music of other cultures and regions, trying to preserve their culture and identity. However, with the winds of time eroding the essence of Jewish music, the Jewish people have started to mingle with the tunes of other cultures.
There are 3 different streams of Jewish music, each connecting Jewish music to different cultures.
- Ashkenazi is the western stream that originated in the west, from Europe and the Americas.
- Sephardi forms a connection with the Mediterranean roots – Spain, North Africa, Greece and Turkey
- Mizrahi is the music of the Jews and the one from the east – Arabic cultures.
Jewish traditions and customs
The Halakah, a part of the Jewish Torah, lays a framework of rules and traditions, defining the way of life for the Jews. The Halakah not only influences the religious practices, but also the Jewish life in general. Halacha encompasses all aspects of life and guides the Jew on how to behave, what to eat, what holidays to celebrate and how, prayers, and more.
From a general perspective, Sabbath is looked like a day of the week when Jews cannot work. However, according to Jewish tradition, it is a day of joy, peace and rest. As per the Jewish literature, the 7th day of the week is made holy by God and is set aside as ‘a day for rest. In Exodus, it states that God completed the ‘Creation’ in 6 days, and resting on the 7th.
Exodus strictly prohibits work on Sabbath, while Leviticus mentioned that one should not work on a festive day until it is to contribute towards the festival. Daily activities like cooking, washing, repairing, writing, etc. are also prohibited on Shabbat. Although the rules of Sabbath are quite definitive, Orthodox Jews adhere to them diligently, while the Conservative Jews follow them to a certain degree.
2. 613 Commandments
The Jewish Torah lists 613 Commandments that every Jew must follow and is believed to lead the path to the divine. Out of the 613, 248 rules are positive and encourages the Jews to perform certain activities. These include following certain religious practices, ways to celebrate festivals and serving humanity.
The remaining 365 commandments are negative and strictly prohibits the Jews to perform those activities or sins. These include not having a negative emotion or ill thoughts towards others, having illicit relationships within certain relations, defines some social responsibilities and construct and guidelines for certain religious activities.
3. Jewish Naming rituals
After the birth of a child, the 1st Shabbat marks an important day. On this day, the infant’s father recites the aliyah (part of Shabbat morning prayer) and seeks god’s blessings for the mother and the child. For a girl child, the naming ceremony is held on the same day, while for a boy child, it is performed after 8 days of the birth, after the child has been circumcised. There are no limitations or rules for names and bear no religious significance. Therefore, the name can be from any language or culture.
4. Jewish culture death
Unlike other cultures, death is considered an important and sacred event in Jewish culture. In Judaism, life holds an extremely high standard. When there is a death in a Jewish family, there are extensive rituals associative with the mourning of the person.
According to Jewish tradition, the burial of the dead must not be delayed and the dead should be buried that day. The treatment of the dead is called purity of the dead. Purity of the dead is a cleansing of the dead person, an internal and external cleansing of the body, as if the dead person still feels, sees and hears.
Men care for deceased men and women care for deceased women. Each organ of the dead body is washed and cleaned separately. This activity holds great value in Jewish culture.
Cremation is not practiced in the Jewish culture. During burials, open caskets are strictly prohibited. Instead, the body is wrapped in a linen shroud, all are equal, rich or poor and placed on the ground itself, not inside a closet. There are burial ceremonies in Kibbutzim and Villages that carry burial inside a closet, but this is a small minority. Most of your burial processes in Israel are performed according to Jewish tradition.
The Literature of the Jewish Culture
Literature is an important component of any culture. It presents a means to understand the ideas of the culture, the knowledge, their history and unveil the lost past. The Jewish culture has such an elongated and eventful past, the literature is quite sizable too.
When we speak of the literature of a culture, how do we relate which literature belongs to which culture? It is based on the language of the text, or is decided by the culture of the author? Or does the content plays that role?
By either of these definitions and probably even various other aspects, the Jewish literature is quite vast, contributing some of the greatest literary works and producing fabulous authors. The literary works of the Jewish culture spread across various themes – religious, social, ethical, philosophical, history and fiction are some of the prominent ones. The Jewish literature includes Yiddish, Arabic, Hebrew, and Jewish American literature under its umbrella.
The Yiddish literature originated in the 19th century in parts of Eastern Europe. The modern Yiddish literature has contributed considerably and some of great Yiddish authors of those times. Writers like Abraham Sutzkevar, Isaac Bashevis Singer and others were popular publish in the late 19th and early 20th century. Isaac Singer was also awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978.
During the early 19th century, Hebrew wasn’t spoken or accepted by the masses. And, so Hebrew Literature experienced some hiccups in its early days. However, soon by the mid and later half of the 19th century, the literary movement was catching pace and Hebrew was gaining popularity on the secular and religious fronts. With more and more writers and poets using Hebrew in their works – fiction, romance, religious texts, poems and many other forms. Hebrew literature soon transformed from being merely a nationalistic ideology to being a popular and experimented literature.
Jewish holy books
Jewish history is quite extensive and old and has evolved over numerous historical events and turning points. There are numerous sacred and historical texts and oral teachings that have been passed on for ages and between generations.
The Hebrew Bible forms the centre of various Jewish beliefs and faith. The written Torah is derived as an extract from the Bible along with the oral Torah – Mishna, Talmud and Midrash supplementing the learnings and messages of God.
These books define the way of life and the commandments for the Jewish community. It is believed that God revealed his message and commandments to Moses in form of written and oral Torah so that it could be passed on to humankind and to help them find their path to the divine. The Five Books of Moses – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, are believed to be written by Moses as dictated by God.
Each of these books contributes to lay the foundation of Judaism. Each of Moses’s books describes the divine pasts and events from the early times, explaining the ideas of God while laying down thee commandments for the Jewish living. They also describe the formation of the Jewish people according to the Torah, the way of life of the patriarchs of the nation, and various significant events that shaped the Jewish people at the beginning.
These Jewish culture books also encourage the Jews to nurture the sentiments of love, forgiveness, and empathy. Further describing for the Jews, how they should observe their lives, categorizing actions into sins and activities towards divinity. It also talks about the festivals, celebrations and special events on human life and how should these be celebrated.
Jewish culture in Israel
The Jewish Culture of Israel has cultivated and evolved over an elongated time. Influenced by various rules and external cultures, the Jewish culture as we see today is slightly different from its original form. For a considerable period, the Jews were scattered over different parts of Europe, while adapting to the local cultures along with their Jewish descend.
These diasporic times brought a cultural mix into Jewish traditions, only to further undergo a fusion when these communities returned together to their homeland. Giving birth to the fusion culture of Israel, which contains parts from the western European, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Arabic cultures.
Today, the philosophy, art, music, literature, and festivals of the Jews in Israel expresses an essence of different cultures, seamlessly fused into Jewish traditions at the core.
Jewish culture in America
In the United States, the Jews are seen as religious as well as an ethnic identity. With a significant share of Jews in the population, the American Jewish culture is widely recognized and observed. The Jews in America share a similarity to the Jewish culture of Israel, however, here the observation of the commandments and practice of the religious rituals is less diligent. But, they share a common value and the core values of Judaism are strong in among the American Jews.
The Jewish Culture in America is a little more relax and influenced by the western cultures of America and thus creating an observable difference in the art, customs, and literature of the Jewish culture.
Can Jewish people drink?
In the Jewish culture, there is fine segregation when it comes to alcohol. While wine is considered as an essential part of various Jewish practices and religious ceremonies, there are no mentions of other alcoholic beverages. The Torah defines and speaks a lot about Jewish customs and there are numerous mentions of the use of wine at different events.
Wine is symbolized as God’s way to bring joy to the man. Hence, it is used at many Jewish holidays like Shabbat, Passover seder and other religious activities and its consumption is encouraged. Therefore, the wine (red and white) holds a special meaning in the Jewish culture.
However, there are no rules or restrictions around the consumption of other alcoholic drinks.
Can Jewish people eat shellfish?
In Jewish culture, kosher is important. It describes the eating cultures for the community, defining what is permitted and fit for consumption. It also prescribes the ways by which certain ingredients should be cooked to fulfill the kosher rules.
When it comes to seafood, any water animal that has fins and scales are considered kosher. According to Leviticus, any water animal that lacks these features is considered impure. Therefore, shellfish is not kosher and hence religiously, it is not permitted for a Jew to consume shellfish.
Can Jewish people eat shrimp?
The Jews have strict dietary laws, defined in the Torah. These laws, Kashrut, describes what foods are permitted or fit for consumption for the people of the Jewish community. Furthermore, it describes how food should be prepared. Hence defining kosher, and shrimps are not considered kosher.
According to kashrut, kosher seafood should have scales and fins. Since shrimps do not fulfill those criteria, they are not considered kosher.
Can Jewish people eat pork?
According to the food laws of the Jewish community, Kashrut, consumption of certain food products and animals is strictly prohibited. Furthermore, if the food is not prepared in a certain way, it is considered unfit for Jewish consumption. In many Middle Eastern cultures, including Jewish, consumption of pork is highly discouraged and strictly prohibited in some cases.
According to the rules, an animal is kosher, if it chews its cud and if it has split hooves. While pigs fulfil the criteria of split hooves, they don’t chew the cud. Making them non-kosher.
Can Jewish people get tattoos?
According to one’s understanding of the Torah, tattooing is considered unbefitting in Jewish culture. One of the texts suggests that the human body is a creation of God and mutilating or changing that creation unless it is essential for a greater good, it considered as an insult to ‘His Creation’.
One may argue that circumcision is also, mutilation of the body. However, this practice has a greater meaning from a religious and philosophical viewpoint.
Are Jewish people a race?
There is a significant difference in the definition of race, a religious entity, an ethnic group or other social sects. Being a Jew is attributed to a sense of belongingness and beliefs. The Jewish culture is formed out of ideology and feeling connected to the land of Israel. The Jewish community is formed by people – descendants of Abraham and Sarah, the people of Israel (often referred to as the Children of Israel) and other members who relate to the ideas and are committed to the beliefs of Judaism.
Are Jewish people circumcised?
In Jewish culture, circumcision is an important practice. According to the Hebrew Bible and Genesis, circumcision is a religious ritual. Considering it as the commandment of God, all Jewish males are required to be circumcised. After a male child is born, there is a religious ceremony on the 8th day of his birth and the child is circumcised, followed by the blessings and naming ceremony. Also, there are numerous mentions of circumcision and its importance in the 5 Books of the Jews.
What are the different types of Jews?
Jewish history is over 4 thousand years long and has been quite an eventful past. Surviving the difficult times and celebrating the good times, passing through various reigns and kingdoms, the Jewish culture evolved and grew. The diasporic past of the Jews and exposure to different cultures led to diversity in the community.
Religious groups – the Jews have 3 religious groups – Kohanims (priests), Levites (people of the Levi tribe) and Israelis (people from other tribes of Israel). Ethnic groups – Ashkenazi (Jews from parts of Eastern Europe), Sephardic (Spanish Jews) and Mizrahi (Jews that originated in the Middle Eastern parts – Iraq, Persia, Yemen, etc.)
Who is the God of the Jews?
Judaism is a monotheistic religion and believes in one God. The God who freed the Israelis from under the rule of Egypt, the one who gave them the Torah and culture. In Judaism, God is known by various names, but God is one – Yahweh (as described in the Bible).
Are Jews an ethnicity?
The Jewish identity is far beyond the definitions of being a religious, ethnic or social group. Being a Jew incorporates elements from these division definitions, making it a little bit of everything, yet not any of those.
Being a Jew is about believing in the ideas of the Torah and observing a life driven by the commandments. It is about feeling connected to the home land (Israel and the various tribes). It is more about feeling it in oneself than being a religion or practice forced upon an individual. Therefore, making Judaism and Jewish culture an ethnic religion.
Who do the Jews believe in?
The Jews believe in one God and his commandments. According to their beliefs, God came in the human form to free them of their sufferings and to show them a path of the divine. The Jews show acceptance and obedience to the laws of the Torah and the ideas of the 5 Holy Books of the Jews.
What are the 3 main sects of Judaism?
The Jews are divided into sects/ groups that differ from each other on various attributes. These include their understanding of the laws of the Torah, their dedication and extent to which they observe these laws and more. These sects are Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Jews.
Why do Orthodox Jews have curls?
The Jewish side curls (called Payot in Hebrew) bears a cultural significance and is a unique element of the Jewish culture. Many Orthodox Jewish men and boys can be seen bearing the side curls. This is primarily driven by the Biblical verse which instructs the Jews to not to shave/ remove the corners of their head. Different communities follow different styles and customs to grow and handle them. Mainly to distinguish themselves from others.
14. Do Orthodox Jews drink alcohol?
Jewish food laws are quite complex and influence everything a Jew can consume. While alcohol is an essential element of the Jewish culture, certain types of alcohol don’t fit the equation. The wine holds a special position among all alcoholic beverages. During festivals and special ceremonies, drinking wine is promoted.
However, for other alcoholic drinks, like beer, whiskey, etc., they must be kosher. According to Jewish culture beliefs, the food, its ingredients, and the preparation together contribute to making the food kosher for a Jew.
Why do Jews wear Yamakas (Kippah)?
Wearing Yarmulkes is an old Jewish tradition which symbolises the act of respect for God. In the old times, it was worn to express respect, but soon became a normative part of the attire. Although it started as a formal behaviour to show respect, it was transformed into a rule of the Halacha. Different groups of Jews opt to wear these at different times, and it is, more importantly, respect to God above them than being an obligatory practice.
Do Orthodox Jews work on Friday?
Shabbat is one of the most important days in the Jewish culture traditions and involves some rules that must be followed. It is the 7th day of the week (at sundown on Friday) that God described as the day of rest and no work. The commandment strictly prohibits any kind of work. Only under certain circumstances, the Torah permits some kinds of work.
The Orthodox Jews are highly particular of these regulations and follow them diligently. Therefore, Orthodox Jews do not work on Fridays till Saturday evening, when you can see three stars in the sky.
What can Jews not eat?
The Jewish laws for food are quite elaborate and the community is very particular about what they eat. Jewish food is often attributed to Kosher – the food that is fit for consumption. On the other hand, certain products are restricted.
If the land animal doesn’t have hooves and doesn’t chew the cud, it is non-kosher. Similarly, all fishes without scales and fins cannot be eaten. Furthermore, the meat cannot be consumed along with the milk of the same animal. For example, a Jew cannot eat beef that is cooked in or served with cow milk. No reptiles and amphibians are permitted in Kashrut.
Can Jews eat pork?
The Jewish food laws in the Kashrut defines the consumables for the Jews. It also defines the items that are prohibited and impure. According to the Kashrut, Pork is strictly prohibited for the Jews, since it is not Kosher. For the land animals to be kosher i.e. fit for Jewish consumption, it should have split hooves and should chew its cud.
And in the case of pigs, they do not chew the cud. Thus, cannot be considered kosher. Along with the Jews, many Middle Eastern communities prohibit the consumption of pig.
What is forbidden in Judaism?
Judaism and the Jewish culture is driven by a set of rules and commandments of the Torah. While some of these commandments encourage certain activities and actions, others forbid the Jewish community to undertake some actions.
The food laws of Kashrut, forbid the Jews to consume pork or any land animal that does not chew the cud and don’t has hooves. Water organisms without scales and fins are also forbidden. Furthermore, pulling bones out of the meat on the table is strictly frowned upon. Consumption of Non-Kosher food is not allowed.
The Jews are forbidden to work (primarily the work for the living/earning) on Shabbat and other festive days. The Torah forbids certain relationships, which are considered socially incorrect. Intimate relationships with Non-Jews are not permitted. Sexual relations with one’s family – mother, father, siblings, brothers, and sisters of one’s parents, children of one’s siblings, primarily with anyone within the blood relations.
A Jew is forbidden to mutilate their body unless it is necessary for one’s survival and/ or accepted by the community. Of the 613 commandments of the Torah, about 300 rules prohibit or oppose performing certain actions.